The topography of Peru is complex, resulting in a variety of habitats and bird species. With more than 1,800 species, it holds one-fifth of the world’s bird life, a staggering amount for a single country. Birders tend to view the country as having three main circuits: northern, central, and southern. Each could easily be its own trip, or you could attempt an epic bird-watching adventure that takes in the Andes and the Amazon, the Sacred Valley and Machu Picchu, cosmopolitan Lima, and colonial Cusco.
Alongside national parks and protected areas are private reserves established by non-profit groups, Association for Andean Ecosystems (ECOAN), Amazon Conservation Association, and others.